Australia: all about Down Under

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Ayers Rock, known to Aborigines as Uluru, is one of Australia’s most popular tourist sites © Carl D. Walsh / IMAGO

Australia is not only naturally one of the most exciting continents on the planet. Biodiversity is also unique. Home to kangaroos, crocodiles and koalas, the country tops the popularity list for many tourists.

  • Australia With its picturesque coastal landscape with a hostile climate on the outskirts, it is considered a continent of extremes.
  • native sound Aboriginal Living in this country in Oceania for more than 50,000 years.
  • The state is part of the British Commonwealth And the form of government is a federal parliamentary monarchy.

Canberra– Australia It is a continent of extremes. It is not only because of the geographical and climatic conditions or the fascinating animal world of this country. as well as the state’s history as a former penal colony Britain Leave an impression here. attraction thatdown under”The focus on many is always worthy of attention, especially in the growing tourist flow every year.

Australia: Aboriginal and first European

Already inhabited at least 50,000 years ago native northern continent. However, it was not a single people, but a number of peoples, tribes and clans (about 200-700 when the British arrived), who were active primarily as hunters and gatherers. until the land bridge is flooded New Guinea Intercontinental exchanges with other cultures also took place 6,000 years ago. more immigrants than indian subcontinent About 4,230 years ago, the possibilities of toolmaking and plant processing in the country changed. About 1,000 years ago, ethnicities were also mixed by Melanesian sailors.

although already ancient times The theory of the existence of a southern continent is called “unknown southern land‘ As was known, Portuguese, French, Spanish and Dutch sailors on the European side only discovered the country here in the 16th century. Initially, due to the dry vegetation of the west coast, there was little interest in the new continent, and it was only through expeditions in the mid-17th century that the country began to attract the attention of European powers.

Australia: Colonized by Great Britain

The British commander arrived on April 28, 1770. james cook East Coast Australian and took it as a colony after two months New South Wales for kingdom of great britain authorized. To dilute the lower class in the British homeland, from 1788 in Australia Creation of the first penal colonies for the culprits. The first agreement on this subject was reached after the British Home Secretary sydney Appointed. In the middle of the 19th century, 160,000 prisoners were taken down under put to flight. brought the British exile policy Australia Also known as “prison island”.

At the same time and in competition with the French, other colonies were established, some of which were designed as prison-free zones. The continent was quickly explored during various expeditions. However, during colonization, conflicts between the colonists and their native TO. There were repeated massacres in which many natives lost their lives.

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Australia: The road to nationhood and the Australian Confederation

starting with gold Rush In 1851, more and more people voluntarily moved to the mainland. The country could no longer be used exclusively as a penal colony. Some colonies gained more independence from the British Empire. Australia Walked the nation’s path. after big sheep shear strike Folk songs in 1898″Waltzing Matilda‘, which was also considered the country’s secret national anthem.

In 1901, the independent colonies unite “The Commonwealth of AustraliaTogether. Six years later, they receive Australian Confederation Ultimately, its independence from mainland Britain. 1911 became Canberra National capital.

It was not until 1986 that Australia receivedaustralia act“One on His Ultimate Abilities” australian constitutionHowever, in 1999, the majority of the population, 55%, voted against the referendum in a plebiscite. Republic and formally Empire To be pronounced under the British crown.

Australia: political system

Australia That is Australian Confederation so there is a parliamentarian Empire on a democratic parliamentary basis after westminster system Destruction. The nation is structured and organized at the federal level. The respective states have their own parliaments with extensive legislative powers. this two chamber system The Australian Parliament is made up of lok sabha Like the lower house, demo management committee that the House of Lords and QUEEN ELIZABETH II. simultaneously as head of state.

will be emperor Commonwealth realm Represented by the Governor General, he however has no power over Parliament. The prime minister is the strongest party in government. The 150 members of the House of Representatives are elected every three years by a first-past-the-post system.

Australia: the facts at a glance

  • Capital: Canberra
  • Official language: English
  • Area: 7,692,000 square kilometers
  • Population: 25.69 million (in 2020)
  • Currency: Australian Dollar (AUD)
  • Administrative divisions: six states, three regions, seven suburbs
  • Religion: 22.6% Roman Catholic, 13.3% Anglican, 16.3% members of other Christian churches, 2.4% Islam, 1.9% Hinduism, 30.1% non-denominational

Australia: population and languages

Australia The country of immigration, which is also reflected in the composition of the population. About 92% are of European descent, about 7% are Asian. About 2.4% describe themselves as partially indigenous. 85% of Australians from countries of European descent have British or Irish ancestry. The other European countries of origin are Italy (916,121), Germany (898.674), Greece (378.270), Poland (170.354), Croatia (126.270), North Macedonia (93,570) and Serbia (69,544). property in 2019 Australia Approximately 25.4 million inhabitants.

About 79 percent of the population speaks English That is. Australian English, Additionally, Italian and a Chinese language can also be found in about 2% of the population. Even before Europeans settled on the continent, around 500 to 600 different languages ​​could be found among the natives. australian languages And that Melanesian be affected. The majority of native They have largely abandoned their traditional way of life. It was not until the beginning of the 21st century that the Australian government paid more attention to the interests of the indigenous population.

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Australia: geography and cities

Australia It spans an area of ​​about 7.7 million square kilometers and is also the sixth largest country in the world in terms of land area. Geographically, three major landscapes (East, Center and West) can be distinguished. In the region of Western Australia, we find mainly sand deserts. but also mountain landscapes or inselbergs like that Uluru (also known as Ayers Rock) relative to.

While the vast western landscape due to several dry areas coupled in the center (countryside) is considered uninhabited, counts the eastern one Australia With its coastal landscape and coral reefs (Great barrier Reef) for preferred settlement areas.

Australia’s largest cities at a glance

  • 1 Sydney to New South Wales: 5,005,400 Einwoner
  • 2 Melbourne to Victoria: population 4,250,000
  • 3 Brisbane in Queensland: 2,274,600 inhabitants
  • 4 Perth in Western Australia: 1,897,548 inhabitants
  • 5 Adelaide in South Australia: population 1,277,174
  • 6 Tweed Heads to Gold Coast – Queensland / New South Wales: 590.889 Einwohner
  • seven Newcastle in New South Wales: 493.467 Einwoner
  • 8 Canberra – Queenbayan in the Australian Capital Territory / New South Wales: 368.128 Einwonner
  • 9 Wollongong in New South Wales: 263,535 Einwohner
  • ten Sunshine Coast in Queensland: population 209,578

Australia: interesting facts about the country

The tourism boom has been going on for years Australia Feather. There is a three-month deadline for admission A sight essential. not just the city sydney, melbourne, BrisbaneCote d’Or, Cairns, Perth, Adelaide as well as the capital Canberra Many top the list of day trippers. More than 20 national parks, such as Kakadu National Park, Uluru-Kata-Tjuta National Park, Blue Mountains National Park or Cape Le Grand National Park are popular destinations. Of rock waveThe kings canyonDie Michelle FallsBut that too Ayers Rock Tourists again and again become magnets in the Outback.

The continent’s fauna is also unique. There are many animal species unique to this continent. Extreme contradictions can also be felt here: while Australia going out with Kangaroo And koala Ad, there are also a large number of poisonous snakes and spiders in the wild. However, with the introduction of non-Australian animal species by European settlers, wildlife also suffered. Many animal species are considered endangered. Because of this Australia Enacted extensive legislation to protect native animal species and created nature reserves specifically for this purpose.

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